Glossary

Glossary

acetabulum n., abbrev. ac the socket on the hip into which the head of the femur fits

amphicoelous adj. describes vertebrae in which the front and back of the centrum are concave. A feature of dinosaur vertebrae that were not supposed to move very much relative to one another, such as posterior dorsals

amphiplatyan adj. describes vertebrae in which the front and back of the centrum are flat.

analogy n. a similar character state present in two or more species of organisms that is derived from different characters in their common ancestor. The opposable digits of Pandas and humans are analogous as the Panda’s digit is formed from bones in the wrist while the human’s is formed from the first digit –analogous adj.

angular bone n., abbrev. mandible bone

anterior adj. forward of; closer to or in the direction of the skull, specifically the tip of the “snout.” For example, the arms are anterior to the legs – cranial syn.

antorbital fenestra n., abbrev. aof fenestration in front of the orbit

appendicular skeleton n. the forelimbs, shoulders, hindlimbs and hip bones

arctometatarsalian adj. describes the condition where the third metatarsal is pinched or compressed between the second and fourth metatarsals. This condition is found in tyrannosaurids, ornithomimids, troodontids, elmisaurids/caenagnathids, Avimimus, Mononykus and their close relatives

astragalocalcaneum n. bone formed by the fusion of the of the anklebones astragalus and calcaneum. This feature was developed convergently in birds and ceratosaurs

axial skeleton n. the spine, including tail, and ribs

barite n. (BaSO4) a common, white, fairly heavy mineral the main ore of barium, often found in the dinosaur bones of the Isle of Wight

basicranium n. the underside of the skull not including the palate; the base of the braincase and the back of the throat. This region is made up of irregularly shaped bones whose names end in “sphenoid” and which are generally fused together into a solid unit

bifurcate adj. Dividing into two

bipedal adj. Walks on two legs

brevis shelf n. a bony recess on the underside of the posterior part of the ilium, to which large tail muscles are attached

calcite n. (CaCO3) very common mineral, usually white, found as infilling in fossil bones

carpal adj., abbrev. cl describes a bone of the carpus (carpals are sometimes called “wrist bones”)

carpometacarpus n. in some animals, the section of the forefoot formed by the fusion of the bones of the carpus and metacarpus

carpus n., abbrev. CS the section of the forefoot between the metacarpus and the wrist joint

caudal adj. behind; of, or closer to or in the direction of, the tail. For example, the vertebrae of the tail are called caudal vertebrae, and the legs are caudal to the arms –posterior syn.

centrum n., pl. centra, abbrev. cent the large, round area of a vertebra

cervical adj. of the neck. For example, the vertebrae of the neck are called cervical vertebrae

chevron n. a V-shaped bone attached to the ventral surface of caudal vertebrae at the top of the V, and articulate where adjacent vertebrae join. Multiple chevrons are located along the length of the caudal series. sometimes called haemal arches.

choana n., pl. chonae the opening between the nasal cavity and the pharynx

clavicle n. collar bone, in dinosaurs may be in contact with the anterior edges of the scapulae, coracoids and sterna.

coracoid n., abbrev. co semicircular bone attached to the front of the scapula

cranial adj. forward of; of, or closer to or in the direction of, the skull. For example, the arms are cranial to the legs –anterior syn.

DCD n., abbrev. Distal Carina Denticle count per 1mm

deltopectoral crest n. ridge of crest to which upper arm muscles attach, particularly well developed in flying and digging vertebrates

dentary bone n., abbrev. d bone in the mandible (see figures 3 and 4)

diapophysis n. a vertebral process to which the tubercule of the rib articulates- usualy situated on the centrum in cervical and caudal vertebrae, and on the neural arch in dorsal vertebrae. Is always dorsal to the parapophysis

dinoturbation n. churning of the ground by dinosaurs – not an accurate term

distal adj. describes a feature anatomically located farther away from, or in the direction away from, the central part of the body or point of attachment or origin. Usually used in the description of limb bones. For example, the ankle is distal of the knee

dorsal adj. describes a feature anatomically located on, closer to, or in the direction of the back. For example, the scapula is dorsal of the manus

DSDI n., abbrev.Denticle-Size Difference Index. MCD:DCD

epipophysis n. a posterodorsally projecting process on the crevical postzypapophysis of dinosaurs, especially well developed in theropods

femur n. thigh bone

fenestra n., pl. fenestrae an opening, such as a hole –fenestration n.

foramen n., pl. foramina an opening, such as a hole, generally smaller than a fenestra

frontal bone n., abbrev. fr skull bone

furcula n. pl. furculae the V-shaped bone in certain theropod groups, including birds, formed by the fusion of the clavicles at the sternum. Also called the “wishbone”

gastralia n. abdominal, or belly, ribs, generally not attached to the spine or thoracic ribs (see figure 13, in red)

gastrolith n. stone swallowed by an organism for either assistance in digestion or ballast, especially in aquatic air-breathing vertebrates

glenoid adj. describes the pocket formed by the scapula and coracoid into which the forearm inserts

hallux n. the first, or innermost, digit of the pes. This is the “big toe” in humans and the backward pointing toe in birds and most theropods

homology n. a similar character state present in two or more species of organisms that is derived from a single character in their common ancestor. The opposable digits in humans and monkeys are homologies as the digits in both animals are formed from digit I –homologous adj.

humerus n., abbrev. h the upper forearm or foreleg bone

hyposphene n., abbrev. hypo joint on the arch of a vertebra

ilium n., abbrev. il top hip bone to which the sacral vertebrae attach

inferior temporal fenestra n., abbrev. itf lower temporal fenestra in diapsids

integument n. the skin and the structures associated with it, including nails, claws, hooves, scales and feathers

ischium n., abbrev. is rear hip bone

labial n. in the lip region, regardless of the organism possessing lips

lacrimal bone n., abbrev. skull bone

lateral adj. in the direction away from, or farther from, a midline bisecting the animal. For example, the hindleg is lateral of the pelvis

mandible n. all the bones of the lower jaw, collectively

mandibular fenestra n., abbrev. mdf lower jaw fenestration

manus n. the forefoot or hand

maxillary bone n., abbrev. mx one of the upper jaw bones

medial adj. in the direction of, or closer to, a midline bisecting the animal. For example, the pelvis is medial of the hindleg

metacarpal n., abbrev. mc describes a bone of the metacarpus

metacarpus n., abbrev. MC the section of the forefoot between the phalanges and the carpus; in humans, the long bones of the hand

metatarsal adj. abbrev. mt describes a bone of the metatarsus

metatarsus n., abbrev. MT the section of the hindfoot between the phalanges and the tarsus; in humans, the long bones of the foot

MCD n., abbrev. Mesial Carina Denticle count per 1mm

naris n. in palaeontology, the external opening of the nasal cavity; in other disciplines, the soft-tissue structure around the external opening of the nasal cavity (i.e. in humans, the nostril)

nasal bone n., abbrev. na skull bone

neural arch n., abbrev. na the opening in a vertebra through which the spinal cord passes

neural spine n., abbrev. sp the large “spike” of bone that rises above the top of a vertebra to which the muscles and tendons for raising the neck attach

obturator process adj., abbrev. obp describes the flange of bone connecting the ischium to the pubis in Predentatans. Thyreophoranss (armored dinosaurs) lacked this prong

opisthocoelous adj. describes vertebrae in which the front of the centrum is convex and the rear of the centrum is concave — so that the front of the vertebra fits into the next vertebra forward like a ball-and-socket joint

opisthopubic adj. describes a condition where the pubis bones point backward, as in maniraptors and predentatans

orbit n., abbrev. o eye socket

osteoderm n. any bone imbedded in the skin. Osteoderms include the scutes of crocodiles, the keeled scutes, spines, and tail-club bones of ankylosaurs, and the plates, spines, and gular ossicles of stegosaurs. Their function is usually for protection and display

palpebral n. bones located in the upper half of the orbit, sometimes connected to the prefrontals or frontals

parapophysis n. a vertebral proces to which the head of the rib articulates, usually situated ventrally on the centrum in anterior cervical vertebrae, but is dorsal in posterior cervical and dorsal vetebrae, is always ventral to the diapophysis

parietal bone n., abbrev. par skull bone

pes n., pl. pedes the hind-foot

phalanx n., pl. phalanges, abbrev. phx a bone in a digit of a foot; in humans, a bone in a finger or toe

pollex n. the first, or innermost, digit of the manus (labeled I in figure 6). This is the “thumb” in humans

postcranial skeleton n. all of the skeleton except the skull

posterior adj. behind; closer to or in the direction of the rear or tail. For example, the legs are posterior to the arms –caudal syn.

postorbital bone n., abbrev. po skull bone

postzygapophysis n. posteriorly projecting process located on the neural arch of a vertebra with a facet for articulation with the next prezygapophysis.

predentary bone n., abbrev. pd mandible bone, unique to Predentatans among the Dinosauria, just forward of the dentary bone in the lower jaw

prefrontal bone n., abbrev. prf skull bone

premaxillary bone n., abbrev. pmx skull bone just forward of the maxillary in the upper jaw

prepubic process adj., abbrev. prp describes the extension of the pubis forward from the hip socket in later Predentatans

prezygapophysis n. anteriorly projecting process located on the neural arch of a vertebra with a dorsal facet for articulation with the preceding postzygapophysis.

procoelous adj. describes vertebrae in which the front of the centrum is concave and the rear of the centrum is convex — so that the rear of the vertebra fits into the next vertebra behind like a ball-and-socket joint

proximal adj. describes a feature anatomically located closer to, or in the direction of, the central part of the body or point of attachment or origin. Usually used in the description of limb bones. For example, the knee is proximal of the ankle

pubis n., abbrev. pu forward hip bone, reduced to a splint in some Predentatans

quadrate bone n., abbrev. q skull bone

quadrate foramen n. a hole in the quadrate allowing the passage of a nerve of blood vessel

quadratojugal bone n., abbrev. qj skull bone

Radius n. abbrev. ra the innermost bone of the foreleg/forearm

retroarticular process n. a small projection on the articular bone forming part of the jaw joint system

rostral bone n., abbrev. r upper jaw bone on ceratopians, in front of the premaxillary bone, that forms the upper part of the beak

sacrum n., the part of the backbone that attaches the pelvis to the spine, usually formed by the fusion of two or more vertebrae –sacral adj.

scapula n., abbrev. sc the shoulder blade

scapulocoracoid n. bone formed by the fusion of the scapula and coracoid

sclerotic plate n., abbrev. scl bone on the eyeball that provides a strong attachment point for muscles. Typical of animals that rely heavily on vision

sclerotic ring n. ring of sclerotic plates

scutes n. plates or large scales set into or onto the skin

semilunate adj. half moon shaped

splenial bone n., abbrev. spl mandible bone

squamosal bone n., abbrev. sq skull bone

sternal plate n. one of the two halves of the sternum, or chest. These bones are usually imbedded in cartilage and are sometimes poorly ossified. In dinosaurs, they generally do not articulate directly with the shoulder girdle (at the coracoids) but “float free” in the chest cartilage. They serve to anchor the tips of the thoracic ribs and the front of the abdominal ribcage, and they act as braces and spacers for the lower shoulder bones (coracoids). In flying birds, the sternal plates are fused solidly together into a relatively huge, keeled breastbone that serves to anchor the pectoral muscles that work the wings

superior temporal fenestra n., abbrev. stf upper temporal fenestra in diapsids

surangular bone n., abbrev. sa mandible bone

tarsal adj., abbrev. tl describes a bone of the tarsus (tarsals are sometimes called “ankle bones”)

tarsometatarsus n. in some animals, the section of the hindfoot formed by the fusion of the bones of the tarsus and metatarsus

tarsus n., abbrev. TS the section of the hindfoot between the metatarsus and the ankle joint

temporal fenestra n. opening in the skull in the temple area. Many vertebrates are classified by how many temporal fenestrae they have

tibiotarsus n. in birds and some dinosaurs, the hind limb bone formed by the fusion of the bottom of the tibia, or calf bone, with the astragalus, the largest ankle bone of dinosaurs and birds. In most dinosaurs, the astragalus was firmly attached to the tibia but not fused with it

tridactyl adj. having three toes

trochanter n. a protuberance on the surface of a bone to which a muscle is attached

ulna n. abbrev. ul the outermost bone of the foreleg/forearm

uncinate process n. a strutlike bone between adjacent ribs in birds, dromaeosaurs and some other theropods

ungual adj. describes the last, outermost bone of the manual or pedal digit. Often forms the core of a claw

ventral adj. describes a feature anatomically located on, closer to, or in the direction of the belly. For example, the manus is ventral of the scapula

vertebra n., pl. vertebrae a bone of the spine (backbone)

zygapophysis n., pl. zygapophyses an anteriorly or posteriorly projecting peg on the neural arch of a vertebra, and articulates with that on the next vertebrae